By | 17th March 2019

कुषाण मौर्य काल में भारत आने वाले प्रमुख विदेशी जातियों में से एक थी ,और यह लोग मूलतः मध्य एशिया “यू ची ” जाति की एक शाखा थी ,चीन के प्रसिद्ध इतिहास कार सु मा चीन के अनुसार यह जाती दूसरी शताब्दी ईसा पूर्व में पश्चिम चीन में निवास करते थे ,कुई शुआंग राज्य पर इनका अधिकार था ,लगभग 163 ईसा पूर्व में इन पर हिंग नू कबीले ने आक्रमण कर दिया था ,और इनके राजा यु ची को मार दिया ,और यह लोगो ने अपनी विधवा रानी के नेतृत्व में वु सुन प्रदेश पर अधिकार कर लिया सरदारिया से ताहिया पहुंचे ,ताहिया और बैक्टीरिया सोग्दियाना पर उन्होंने आक्रमण कर दिया जहा हिन्दी यूनानियों लोग राज करते थे ,और उन्हें जीत लिया किन- ची को अपनी राजधानी बनाया

206-220ई तक कुषाणों का इतिहास चीनी ग्रन्थ हान शू या तथा हाउ हान शू में मिलता है ,इस ग्रन्थ के अनुसार चु ची की एक शाखा सोग्दियाना पहुचने से पूर्व अपनी बड़ी शाखा से अलग हो कर तिब्बत की और चली गयी ,शेष पांच शाखाओं कुई शुआंग या कुषाण ,हीउ यी शुअांग्मी ,सितुं और तुमी को उनके एक सरदार क्यू क्यू कियो या कुजुल कडफाइसिस कुई शुआंग या कुषाण समाज की अध्क्षता में संघटित कर सम्राट बन गया

कुजुल कडफ़ाइसिस ने 15-65 ई तक राज किया और सचधर्मनिष्ट अभिलेख के अनुसार इस का धर्म शैव या बौद्ध था ,इस के बाद विम कदफिसस शासक बना जो कुजुल कडफ़ाइसिस का बेटा था और उस का काल 65 -78ई तक रहा और यह शैव मत को मानता था

कनिष्क ने देवपुत्र शाहने शाही की उपाधि धारण की थी। भारत आने से पहले कुषाण ‘बैक्ट्रिया’ में शासन करते थे, जो कि उत्तरी अफगानिस्तान एवं दक्षिणी उजबेगकिस्तान एवं दक्षिणी तजाकिस्तान में स्थित था और यूनानी एवं ईरानी संस्कृति का एक केन्द्र था। कुषाण हिन्द-ईरानी समूह की भाषा बोलते थे और वे मुख्य रूप से मिहिर (सूर्य) के उपासक थे। सूर्य का एक पर्यायवाची ‘मिहिर’ है, जिसका अर्थ है, वह जो धरती को जल से सींचता है, समुद्रों से आर्द्रता खींचकर बादल बनाता है।

कुषाण सम्राट कनिष्क ने अपने सिक्कों पर, यूनानी भाषा और  लिपि में मीरों (मिहिर) को उत्टंकित कराया था, जो इस बात का प्रतीक है कि ईरान के सौर सम्प्रदाय भारत में प्रवेश कर गया था।ईरान में मिथ्र या मिहिर पूजा अत्यन्त लोकप्रिय थी। भारत में सिक्कों पर सूर्य का अंकन किसी शासक द्वारा पहली बार हुआ था। सम्राट कनिष्क के सिक्के में सूर्यदेव बायीं और खड़े हैं। बांए हाथ में दण्ड है जो रश्ना सें बंधा है। कमर के चारों ओर तलवार लटकी है। सूर्य ईरानी राजसी वेशभूषा में है।  पेशावर के पास शाह जी की ढेरी नामक स्थान पर कनिष्क द्वारा निमित एक बौद्ध स्तूप के अवशेषों से एक बक्सा प्राप्त हुआ जिसे ‘कनिष्कास कास्केट’ कहते हैं, इस पर सम्राट कनिष्क के साथ सूर्य एवं चन्द्र के चित्र का अंकन हुआ है। इस ‘कास्केट’ पर कनिष्क के संवत का प्रथम वर्ष अंकित है।

राज्य विस्तार

कनिष्क ने कुषाण वंश की शक्ति का पुनरुद्धार किया। सातवाहन राजा कुन्तल सातकर्णि के प्रयत्न से कुषाणों की शक्ति क्षीण हो गई थी। अब कनिष्क के नेतृत्व में कुषाण राज्यका पुनः उत्कर्ष हुआ। उसने उत्तर-दक्षिण-पूर्व-पश्चिम चारों दिशाओं में अपने राज्य का विस्तार किया। सातवाहनों को परास्त करके उसने न केवल पंजाब पर अपना आधिपत्य स्थापितकिया, अपितु भारत के मध्यदेश को जीतकर मगध से भी सातवाहन वंश के शासन का अन्त किया। कुमारलात नामक एक बौद्ध पंडित ने कल्पना मंडीतिका नाम की एक पुस्तक लिखीथी, जिसका चीनी अनुवाद इस समय भी उपलब्ध है। इस पुस्तक में कनिष्क के द्वारा की गई पूर्वी भारत की विजय का उल्लेख है। श्रीधर्मपिटक निदान सूत्र नामक एक अन्य बौद्ध ग्रंथ में[2] लिखा है, कि कनिष्क ने पाटलिपुत्र को जीतकर उसे अपने अधीन किया और वहाँ से प्रसिद्ध बौद्ध विद्वान् अश्वघोष और भगवान बुद्ध के कमण्डलु को प्राप्त किया। तिब्बत की बौद्धअनुश्रुति में भी कनिष्क के साकेत (अयोध्या) विजय का उल्लेख है। इस प्रकार साहित्यिक आधार पर यह बात ज्ञात होती है कि कनिष्क एक महान् विजेता था, और उसने उत्तरी भारत केबड़े भाग को जीतकर अपने अधीन कर लिया था। सातवाहन वंश का शासन जो पाटलिपुत्र से उठ गया, वह कनिष्क की विजयों का ही परिणाम था।

बौद्ध अनुश्रुति की यह बात कनिष्क के सिक्कों और उत्कीर्ण लेखों द्वारा भी पुष्ट होती है। कनिष्क के सिक्के उत्तरी भारत में दूर-दूर तक उपलब्ध हुए हैं। पूर्व में रांची तक सेउसके सिक्के मिले हैं। इसी प्रकार उसके लेख पश्चिम में पेशावर से लेकर पूर्व में मथुरा और सारनाथ तक प्राप्त हुए हैं। उसके राज्य के विस्तार के विषय में ये पुष्ट प्रमाण हैं। सारनाथ मेंकनिष्क का जो शिलालेख मिला है, उसमें महाक्षत्रप ख़रपल्लान और क्षत्रप विनस्पर के नाम आए हैं।

यूनानी काल

कनिष्क के काल के आरम्भ के कुछ सिक्कों पर यूनानी भाषा एवं लिपि में लिखा है : ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΚΑΝΗϷΚΟΥ, बैसेलियस बॅसेलियॉन कनेश्कोऊ “कनिष्क केसिक्के, राजाओं का राजा” इन आरम्भिक मुद्राओं में यूनानी नाम लिखे जाते थे:

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